Summary: Ancient civilizations that made significant contributions to today's modern society. the wheel, the alphabet, and government.
First and foremost, one of the greatest contributions to society is the alphabet that we use today. The Asiatics, Phoenicians, and Greeks all contributed and revised their writing systems to give us our present day alphabet. Without a way to write, we would still be using symbols and pictures to tell stories. These ancient civilizations had fantastic writing systems, and because of this, today, we also do.
In addition, Egypt's advances were particularly outstanding. Their advances in their political systems allowed the Egyptians to remain powerful for almost 4000 years. The political systems of these regions were original. The Egyptian government was the first centralized authority that is dated. This allowed them to organize huge projects such as the Great Pyramids, and to utilize the Nile River for irrigation of crops, and water for the towns. Today, we have a government that allows us to have an army, voice our opinions, and other freedoms. Without the Egyptians, our society would be ran very different.
Last but not least, the wheel was a pivotal invention in history. Egyptians improved the wheel in a way that was quite significant. They had added spokes to the wheel for stability, support, and performance. Research shows that the Egyptians used spoked wheels as far back as 2000 B.C. This idea caught on very well, there are spoked wheels from c1500 B.C. in India, and the Romans used spoked wheels on chariots and other forms of transportation. The wheel evolved into what it is today with the help of the Egyptians.
In conclusion, over time these advancements brought people into a more efficient living environment, allowing for higher population and spread of cultural, political, economic, and social ideals over large geographical areas. Without the alphabet, our government, and the wheel, I could not picture society being the same as it is today.
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No treatment of the main period of Greek civilization should end without emphasizing the continuity both with what went before and with what came after. Continuity is clearest in the sphere of religion, which may be said to have been “embedded” in Greek life. Some of the gods alleged to have been relatively late imports into Greece can in fact be shown to have Mycenaean origins. For instance, one Athenian myth held that Dionysus was a latecomer, having been introduced into Attica from Eleutherae in the 6th century. There is reference to Dionysus (or di-wo-no-so-jo), however, on Linear B tablets from the 2nd millennium bce.
Looking forward, Dionysus’s statue was to be depicted in a grand procession staged in Alexandria in the 3rd century bce by Ptolemy II Philadelphus. (The iconographic significance of the king’s espousal of Dionysus becomes clear in light of the good evidence that in some sense Alexander the Great had identified himself with Dionysus in Carmania.) Nor was classical Dionysus confined to royal exploitation: it has been shown that the festivals of the City Dionysia at Athens and the deme festival of the Rural Dionysia were closely woven into the life of the Athenian empire and the Athenian state. Another Athenian, Euripides, represented Dionysus in a less tame and “official” aspect in the Bacchae; the Euripidean Dionysus has more in common with the liberating Dionysus of Carmania or with the socially disruptive Dionysus whose worship the Romans in 186 bce were to regulate in a famous edict. The longevity and multifaceted character of Dionysus symbolizes the tenacity of the Greek civilization, which Alexander had taken to the banks of the Oxus but which in many respects still carried the marks of its Archaic and even prehistoric origins.Simon Hornblower