Tamil literature, body of writings in Tamil, a Dravidian language of India and Sri Lanka. Apart from literature written in classical (Indo-Aryan) Sanskrit, Tamil is the oldest literature in India. Some inscriptions on stone have been dated to the 3rd century bc, but Tamil literature proper begins around the 1st century ad. Much early poetry was religious or epic; an exception was the secular court poetry written by members of the śaṅgam, or literary academy (seeŚaṅgam literature).
Notable works of the 4th–6th centuries include the twin epics Cilappatikāram (“The Lay of the Anklet”) and Maṇimēkalai (“The Girdle of Gems,” the only extant Tamil Buddhist work) and the Tirukkuraḷ, a collection of aphorisms on such matters as love, kingship, and ethics. The 6th–9th centuries saw the emergence of bhakti, the poetry and religion of personal devotion, which began in the Tamil region with the hymns of the Āḻvārs and the Nāyaṉārs (qq.v.) in honour of the Vaiṣṇava and Śaiva saints. From the 12th to the 16th century many philosophical treatises and anthologies of religious legends were composed, as well as the classic writings of the poet Kampan. From the 19th century, Tamil literature was increasingly influenced by Western forms and ideas. See alsoIndian literature.
This lesson discusses the role of the Samanars or Jains in the growth of the Tamil language. It examines the pioneering efforts of the Samanars in enriching the Tamil language. It analyses some of the most important grammar, literary and religious texts composed by the Samanars. It also refers to a wealth of information on the Samanars found in other Tamil literary works. The Tamil language owes its growth to various religious movements that flourished in ancient Tamilnadu. By using Tamil as a means of propagating their doctrines, these religions indirectly shaped the Tamil language. The Samanars played a significant role in developing the Tamil language. Like the Pandyas who established the Tamil Sangam, the Samanars founded the â€˜Tiramila Sangamâ€™ through which they contributed to the growth of the Tamil language. This Sangam was divided into 4 sects namely Nandi Kanam, Sena Kanam, Simha Kanam and Deva Kanam.
Of these Nandi Kanam was the most popular. In 470 A.D., a Samanar called Vachira Nandi divided the Nandi Kanam into 2 groups and established the new group as Dravida Kanam in Madurai. The Dravida Kanam contributed a great deal to the growth of the Tamil language. Though the Samanars hailed from the Northern kingdom of Magada, they used Tamil to convey their philosophy. Samanars have the credit of writing the first grammar texts in Tamil. They also pioneered the compilation of â€˜nigandugalâ€™ or Thesaurus in Tamil and composed the early epics. â€˜Indra Kaleeyamâ€™, â€˜Yaaparungalamâ€™, â€˜Neminathamâ€™ and â€˜Nannoolâ€™ are some of the famous grammar texts written by the Samanars. There is a belief that â€˜Tholkappiamâ€™ is a Samana text. â€˜Divakara Nikanduâ€™ and â€˜Pingala Nikanduâ€™ are 2 popular thesauruses compiled by the Samanars. Three of the 5 great epics in Tamil- viz. â€˜Silapathigaramâ€™, â€˜Valaiyapathiâ€™ and â€˜Seevagasinthamaniâ€™ were written by Samanars.
Among the 5 minor epics, â€˜Soolamaniâ€™, â€˜Neelakesiâ€™ and â€˜Yasodara Kaviyamâ€™ were composed by the Samanars. The religious rivalry between Samanam and Buddhism prompted the Samanars to write texts that condemned or belittled Buddhist philosophy. â€˜Neelakesiâ€™, â€˜Pingalakesiâ€™ and â€˜Anjanakesiâ€™ were such texts. Of these only â€˜Neelakesiâ€™ is available today. 4 of the Pathinen Keezhkanakku Noolgal are attributed to the Samanars. â€˜Sree Puranamâ€™, â€˜Merumanthira Puranamâ€™, â€˜Santhi Puranamâ€™, â€˜Jain Ramayanamâ€™ and â€˜Narada Sarithaiâ€™ are the puranas written by Samanars. Several literary texts in Tamil allude to Samanam and Samanars. Ilampuranar who wrote the commentaries for â€˜Tholkappiamâ€™ is said to have based his explanations on one of the basic tenets of Samanam.
There are several stone inscriptions to prove that Samanars lived in and around Madurai. â€˜Madurai Kanchiâ€™ which is one of the â€˜Pathu Paatuâ€™ anthology speaks of a temple dedicated to the Samana God Aruhar in Madurai. â€˜Pattina Paalaiâ€™ which is also one of the Pathu Paatu anthology mentions the presence of a samana monastery in Kaveripoompattinam. 14 poems in â€˜Purananuruâ€™ allude to â€˜vadakkiruthalâ€™, a ritual in which a person sits facing the north and gives up his life by fasting.
This ritual is associated with Samanam. â€˜Thirukkuralâ€™ one of the renowned Tamil texts contains several ideas along the lines of Samana doctrines. There is also a widespread belief that Thiruvalluvar who sang the Thirukkural was a Samanar. â€˜Periya Puranamâ€™, an important Saiva text, records the rivalry between Saivam and Samanam. Mayilai Seeni Venkatasamy, a Tamil scholar, asserts that Nikandanar, one of the Sangam poets, was a Samanar. Similarly, another poet of the Sangam period called Ulochanaar is also said to be a Samanar.